AKTU B-pharma 1st Semester Syllabus

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BP101T. HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY-I (Theory)

                               Unit-I

Introduction to human body: Definition and scope of anatomy and physiology, levels
of structural organization and body systems, basic life processes, homeostasis, basic
anatomical terminology.
Cellular level of organization: Structure and functions of cell, transport across cell
membrane, cell division, cell junctions. General principles of cell communication,
intracellular signaling pathway activation by extracellular signal molecule, Forms
of intracellular signaling: a) Contact-dependent; b) Paracrine; c) Synaptic; d) Endocrine.
Tissue level of organization: Classification of tissues, structure, location and functions
of epithelial, muscular and nervous and connective tissues.

                                 Unit-II

Integumentary system: Structure and functions of skin.
Skeletal system: Divisions of skeletal system, types of bone, salient features and
functions of bones of axial and appendicular skeletal system. Organization of skeletal
muscle, physiology of muscle contraction, neuromuscular junction.
Joints: Structural and functional classification, types of joints movements and its
articulation.

                                 Unit-III

Body fluids and blood:Body fluids, composition and functions of blood, hemopoiesis,formation of hemoglobin, anemia, mechanisms of coagulation, blood grouping, Rh
factors, transfusion, its significance and disorders of blood, Reticulo-endothelial system.
Lymphatic system: Lymphatic organs and tissues, lymphatic vessels, lymph circulation
and functions of lymphatic system.

                                 Unit-IV

Peripheral nervous system:Classification of peripheral nervous system: Structure andfunctions of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. Origin and functions of
spinal and cranial nerves.
Special senses: Structure and functions of eye, ear, nose and tongue and their disorders.

                                 Unit-V

Cardiovascular system:Heart – anatomy of heart, blood circulation, blood vessels, structure and functions of
artery, vein and capillaries, elements of conduction system of heart and heartbeat, its
regulation by autonomic nervous system, cardiac output, cardiac cycle. Regulation of
blood pressure, pulse, electrocardiogram and disorders of heart

BP102T. PHARMACEUTICAL ANALYSIS (Theory)

                                 Unit-I

Pharmaceutical analysis: Definition and scope.
i) Different techniques of analysis.
ii) Methods of expressing concentration.
iii) Primary and secondary standards.
iv) Preparation and standardization of various molar and normal solutions- Oxalic acid,
sodium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid, sodium thiosulphate, sulphuric acid, potassium
permanganate and ceric ammonium sulphate.
Errors: Sources of errors, types of errors, methods of minimizing errors, accuracy,
precision and significant figures.
Pharmacopoeia, Sources of impurities in medicinal agents, limit tests.

                                 Unit-II

Acid base titration: Theories of acid base indicators, classification of acid base titrations
and theory involved in titrations of strong, weak, and very weak acids and bases,
neutralization curves.
Non-aqueous titration: Solvents, acidimetry and alkalimetry titration and estimation of
Sodium benzoate and Ephedrine HCl.

                                  Unit-III

Precipitation titrations: Mohr’s method, Volhard’s, Modified Volhard’s, Fajan’s method,
estimation of sodium chloride.
Complexometric titration: Classification, metal ion indicators, masking and demasking
reagents, estimation of Magnesium sulphate, and calcium gluconate.
Gravimetry: Principle and steps involved in gravimetric analysis. Purity of the
precipitate: co-precipitation and post precipitation, Estimation of barium sulphate.
Basic Principles, methods and application of diazotization titration.

                                  Unit-IV

Redox titrations: Concepts of oxidation and reduction, Types of redox titrations
(Principles and applications).
Cerimetry, Iodimetry, Iodometry, Bromometry, Dichrometry and titration with
potassium-iodate.
Evaluation Scheme Bachelor of Pharmacy I, II, III & IV Year syllabus 2019-2020 Page 14

                                  Unit-V

Electrochemical methods of analysis:
Conductometry- Introduction, Conductivity cell, Conductometric titrations, applications.
Potentiometry- Electrochemical cell, construction and working of reference (Standard
hydrogen, silver chloride electrode and calomel electrode) and indicator electrodes (metal
electrodes and glass electrode), methods to determine end point of potentiometric titration
and applications.
Polarography – Principle, Ilkovic equation construction and working of dropping mercury
electrode and rotating platinum electrode, applications.

BP103T. PHARMACEUTICS- I (Theory)

                                Unit-I

Historical background and development of profession of pharmacy: History of
profession of Pharmacy in India in relation to pharmacy education, industry and
organization, Pharmacy as a career, Pharmacopoeias: Introduction to IP, BP, USP and
Extra Pharmacopoeia.
Dosage forms: Introduction to dosage forms, classification and definitions.
Prescription: Definition, Parts of prescription, handling of Prescription and Errors in
prescription.
Posology: Definition, Factors affecting posology. Pediatric dose calculations based on age,
body weight and body surface area.

                                Unit-II

Pharmaceutical calculations: Weights and measures– Imperial & Metric system,
Calculations involving percentage solutions, allegation, proof spirit and isotonic solutions
based on freezing point and molecular weight.
Powders: Definition, classification, advantages and disadvantages. Simple & compound
powders– official preparations, dusting powders, effervescent, efflorescent and hygroscopic
powders, eutectic mixtures. Geometric dilutions.
Liquid dosage forms: Advantages and disadvantages of liquid dosage forms.
Excipients used in formulation of liquid dosage forms. Solubility enhancement
techniques.

                              Unit-III

Monophasic liquids: Definitions and preparations of Gargles, Mouthwashes, Throat
Paint, Eardrops, Nasal drops, Enemas, Syrups, Elixirs, Liniments and Lotions.
Biphasic liquids:
Suspensions: Definition, advantages and disadvantages, classifications, Preparation of
suspensions; Flocculated and Deflocculated suspension & stability problems and methods
to overcome.
Emulsions: Definition, classification, emulsifying agent, test for the identification of type
of Emulsion, Methods of preparation & stability problems and methods to overcome.

                               Unit-IV

Suppositories: Definition, types, advantages and disadvantages, types of bases, methods
of preparations. Displacement value & its calculations, evaluation of suppositories.
Pharmaceutical incompatibilities: Definition, classification, physical, chemical and
therapeutic incompatibilities with examples.

                               Unit-V

Semisolid dosage forms: Definitions, classification, mechanisms and factors
influencing dermal penetration of drugs. Preparation of ointments, pastes, creams and gels.
Excipients used in semi-solid dosage forms. Evaluation of semi-solid dosages formsb)

BP104T. PHARMACEUTICAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRY (Theory)

                             Unit-I

Impurities in pharmaceutical Substances: History of Pharmacopoeia, Sources and
types of impurities, principle involved in the limit test for Chloride, Sulphate, Iron,
Arsenic, Lead and Heavy metals, modified limit test for Chloride and Sulphate.
General methods of preparation, assay for the compounds superscripted with
asterisk (*), properties and medicinal uses of inorganic compounds belonging to the
following classes.

                             Unit-II

Acids, Bases and Buffers: Buffer equations and buffer capacity in general, buffers in
pharmaceutical systems, preparation, stability, buffered isotonic solutions,
measurements of tonicity, calculations and methods of adjusting isotonicity.
Major extra and intracellular electrolytes: Functions of major
physiological ions, Electrolytes used in the replacement therapy: Sodium chloride*,
Potassium chloride, Calcium gluconate* and Oral Rehydration Salt (ORS), Physiological
acid base balance.
Dental products: Dentifrices, role of fluoride in the treatment of dental caries,
Desensitizing agents, Calcium carbonate, Sodium fluoride, and Zinc eugenol cement.

                            Unit-III

Gastrointestinal agents
Acidifiers: Ammonium chloride* and Dil. HCl.
Antacid: Ideal properties of antacids, combinations of antacids, Sodium Bicarbonate*,
Aluminum hydroxide gel, Magnesium hydroxide mixture.
Cathartics: Magnesium sulphate, Sodium orthophosphate Kaolin and Bentonite.
Antimicrobials: Mechanism, classification, Potassium permanganate, Boric acid,
Hydrogen peroxide*, Chlorinated lime*, Iodine and its preparations.

                              Unit-IV

Miscellaneous compounds
Expectorants: Potassium iodide, Ammonium chloride*.
Emetics: Copper sulphate*, Sodium potassium tartrate.
Hematinics: Ferrous sulphate*, Ferrous gluconate.
Poison and Antidote: Sodium thiosulphate*, Activated charcoal, Sodium nitrite333.
Astringents: Zinc Sulphate, Potash Alum.

                               Unit-V

Radiopharmaceuticals: Radio activity, measurement of radioactivity, properties
of α, β, γ radiations, half-life, radio isotopes and study of radio isotopes- Sodium
iodide I131, storage conditions, precautions & pharmaceutical application of radioactive
substances.

BP105T. COMMUNIUCATION SKILLS (Theory)

                               Unit-I

Communication Skills: Introduction, Definition, The Importance of Communication,
the communication process – Source, Message, Encoding, Channel, Decoding, Receiver,
Feedback, Context.
Barriers to communication: Physiological Barriers, Physical Barriers, Cultural
Barriers, Language Barriers, Gender Barriers, Interpersonal Barriers, Psychological
Barriers, Emotional barriers.
Perspectives in communication: Introduction, Visual perception, Language, Other
factors affecting our perspective – Past Experiences, Prejudices, Feelings, Environment.

                               Unit-II

Elements of communication: Introduction, Face to Face Communication – Tone of
Voice, Body Language (Non-verbal communication), Verbal Communication, Physical
Communication.
Communication styles: Introduction, The Communication Styles Matrix with example
for each Direct communication style, Spirited Communication Style, Systematic
Communication Style, Considerate Communication Style.

                               Unit-III

Basic listening skills: Introduction, Self-Awareness, Active Listening, Becoming an
Active Listener, Listening in difficult situations.
Effective written communication: Introduction, When and When Not to Use Written
Communication- Complexity of the Topic, Amount of Discussion’ Required, Shades of
Meaning, Formal Communication.
Writing effectively: Subject Lines, Put the Main Point First, Know Your Audience,
Organization of the Message.

                             Unit-IV

 Interview skills: Purpose of an interview, Do’s and Don’ts of an interview.
Giving presentations: Dealing with Fears, planning your Presentation, Structuring Your
Presentation, Delivering Your Presentation, Techniques of Delivery.

                             Unit-V

Group discussion: Introduction, Communication skills in group discussion, Do’s and
Don’ts of group discussion.

BP106RBT. REMEDIAL BIOLOGY (Theory)                                        Unit-I

Living world:
Definition and characters of living organisms.
Diversity in the living world.
Binomial nomenclature.
Five kingdoms of life and basis of classification. Salient features of Monera, Protista,
Fungi, Animalia and Plantae, Virus.
Morphology of flowering plants
Morphology of different parts of flowering plants- Root, stem, inflorescence, flower,
leaf, fruit, seed.
General Anatomy of Root, stem, leaf of monocotyledons & Dicotyledons.

                              Unit-II

Body fluids and circulation: Composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood,
Composition and functions of lymph, Human circulatory system, Structure of human heart
and blood vessels, Cardiac cycle, cardiac output and ECG.
Digestion and absorption: Human alimentary canal and digestive glands, Role of
digestive enzymes, Digestion, absorption and assimilation of digested food.
Breathing and respiration: Human respiratory system, Mechanism of breathing and its
regulation, Exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration, Respiratory
volumes.

                              Unit-III

Excretory products and their elimination: Modes of excretion, Human excretory systemstructure and function, Urine formation, Rennin angiotensin system.
Neural control and coordination: Definition and classification of nervous system,
Structure of a neuron, Generation and conduction of nerve impulse, Structure of brain and
spinal cord, Functions of cerebrum, cerebellum, hypothalamus and medulla oblongata.
Chemical coordination and regulation: Endocrine glands and their secretions, Functions
of hormones secreted by endocrine glands
Human reproduction: Parts of female reproductive system, Parts of male reproductive
system, Spermatogenesis and Oogenesis, Menstrual cycle.

                              Unit-IV

Plants and mineral nutrition: Essential mineral, macro and micronutrients, Nitrogen
metabolism, Nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation
Photosynthesis: Autotrophic nutrition, photosynthesis, Photosynthetic pigments, Factors
affecting photosynthesis.

                            Unit-V

Plant respiration: Respiration, glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic).
Plant growth and development: Phases and rate of plant growth, Condition of growth,
Introduction to plant growth regulators
Cell – The unit of life: Structure and functions of cell and cell organelles. Cell division
Tissues: Definition, types of tissues, location and functions.

BP106RMT. REMEDIAL MATHEMATICS (Theory)

                           Unit-I

Partial fraction: Introduction, Polynomial, Rational fractions, Proper and Improper
fractions, Partial fraction, Resolving into Partial fraction, Application of Partial Fraction in
Chemical Kinetics and Pharmacokinetics.
Logarithms: Introduction, Definition, Theorems/Properties of logarithms, Common
logarithms, Characteristic and Mantissa, worked examples, application of logarithm to
solve pharmaceutical problems.
Function: Real Valued function, Classification of real valued functions.
Limits and continuity: Introduction, Limit of a function, Definition of limit of a
function (∈ – δ
definition), lim x − a
= na
n−1
, lim s in θ
= 1,
x→a x − a θ →0 θ

                          Unit-II

Matrices and Determinant:
Introduction matrices, Types of matrices, Operation on matrices, Transpose of a matrix,
Matrix Multiplication, Determinants, Properties of determinants, Product of
determinants, Minors and co-Factors, Adjoint or adjugate of a square matrix, Singular
and non-singular matrices, Inverse of a matrix, Solution of system of linear of equations
using matrix method, Cramer’s rule, Characteristic equation and roots of a square
matrix, Cayley-Hamilton theorem, Application of Matrices in solving Pharmacokinetic
equations.

                            Unit-III

Calculus Differentiation : Introductions, Derivative of a function, Derivative of a
constant, Derivative of a product of a constant and a function , Derivative of the sum
or difference of two functions, Derivative of the product of two functions (product
formula), Derivative of the quotient of two functions (Quotient formula) – Without
Proof, Derivative of x
n w.r.tx, where n is any rational number, Derivative of e power x
,,
Derivative of loge x , Derivative of a x
, Derivative of trigonometric functions from
first principles (without Proof), Successive Differentiation, Conditions for a
function to be a maximum or a minimum at a point. Application.

                         Unit-IV

Analytical Geometry
Introduction: Signs of the Coordinates, Distance formula.
Straight Line: Slope or gradient of a straight line, Conditions for parallelism and
perpendicularity of two lines, Slope of a line joining two points, Slope – intercept
form of a straight line.
Integration: Introduction, Definition, Standard formulae, Rules of integration, Method
of substitution, Method of Partial fractions, Integration by parts, definite integrals,
application.

                          Unit-V

Differential Equations: Some basic definitions, Order and degree, Equations in
separable form, Homogeneous equations, Linear Differential equations, Exact
equations, Application in solving Pharmacokinetic equations.
Laplace Transform: Introduction, Definition, Properties of Laplace transform,
Laplace Transforms of elementary functions, Inverse Laplace transforms, Laplace
transform of derivatives, Application to solve Linear differential equations, Application
in solving chemical kinetics and Pharmacokinetics equations.

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