AKTU B-pharma 2nd Semester Syllabus

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P201T. HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY-II (Theory)

Unit-I

Nervous system
Organization of nervous system, neuron, neuroglia, classification and properties of
nerve fiber, electrophysiology, action potential, nerve impulse, receptors, synapse,
neurotransmitters.
Central nervous system: Meninges, ventricles of brain and cerebrospinal fluid.
Structure and functions of brain (cerebrum, brain stem, cerebellum), spinal cord (gross
structure, functions of afferent and efferent nerve tracts, reflex activity).

Unit II

Digestive system: Anatomy of GI Tract with special reference to anatomy and functions of
stomach, (Acid production in the stomach, regulation of acid production through
parasympathetic nervous system, pepsin role in protein digestion) small intestine and
large intestine, anatomy and functions of salivary glands, pancreas and liver, movements
of GIT, digestion and absorption of nutrients and disorders of GIT.
Energetics: Formation and role of ATP, Creatinine Phosphate and BMR.

Unit-III

Respiratory system
Anatomy of respiratory system with special reference to anatomy of lungs, mechanism
of respiration, regulation of respiration.
Lung Volumes and capacities transport of respiratory gases, artificial respiration, and
resuscitation methods.
Urinary system: Anatomy of urinary tract with special reference to anatomy of kidney
and nephrons, functions of kidney and urinary tract, physiology of urine formation,
micturition reflex and role of kidneys in acid base balance, role of RAS in kidney and
disorders of kidney.

Unit-IV

Endocrine system: Classification of hormones, mechanism of hormone action, structure
and functions of pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, adrenal gland, pancreas,
pineal gland, thymus and their disorders.

Unit-V

Reproductive system: Anatomy of male and female reproductive system, Functions of
male and female reproductive system, sex hormones, physiology of menstruation,
fertilization, spermatogenesis, oogenesis, pregnancy and parturition.
Introduction to genetics: Chromosomes, genes and DNA, protein synthesis, genetic
pattern of inheritance.

BP203T. BIOCHEMISTRY (Theory)

Unit-I

Biomolecules: Introduction, classification, chemical nature and biological role of
carbohydrate, lipids, nucleic acids, amino acids and proteins.
Bioenergetics: Concept of free energy, endergonic and exergonic reaction, Relationship
between free energy, enthalpy and entropy; Redox potential.
Energy rich compounds; classification; biological significances of ATP and cyclic
AMP.

Unit-II

Carbohydrate metabolism:
Glycolysis- Pathway, energetics and significance.
Gluconeogenesis- Pathway and its significance.
Citric acid cycle- Pathway, energetics and significance.
HMP shunt and its significance- Glucose-6-Phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency.
Glycogen metabolism Pathways and glycogen storage diseases (GSD).
Hormonal regulation of blood glucose level and Diabetes mellitus.
Biological oxidation:
Electron transport chain (ETC) and its mechanism.
Oxidative phosphorylation & its mechanism and substrate level phosphorylation.
Inhibitors ETC and oxidative phosphorylation/Uncouplers.

Unit-III

Lipid metabolism: β-Oxidation of saturated fatty acid (Palmitic acid). Formation and
utilization of ketone bodies; ketoacidosis. De novo synthesis of fatty acids (Palmitic acid).
Biological significance of cholesterol and conversion of cholesterol into bile acids,
steroid hormone and vitamin D.
Disorders of lipid metabolism: Hypercholesterolemia, atherosclerosis, fatty liver and
obesity.
Amino acid metabolism: General reactions of amino acid metabolism.
Transamination, deamination and decarboxylation, Urea cycle and its disorders.
Catabolism of phenylalanine and tyrosine and their metabolic disorders
(Phenylketonuria, Albinism, Alkaptonuria, Tyrosinemia).
Synthesis and significance of biological substances: 5-HT, melatonin, dopamine,
noradrenaline, adrenaline.

Unit-IV

Nucleic acid metabolism and genetic information transfer
Biosynthesis of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides.
Catabolism of purine nucleotides and Hyperuricemia and Gout disease.
Organization of mammalian genome.
Structure of DNA and RNA and their functions DNA replication (semi conservative model)
Transcription or RNA synthesis.
Genetic code, Translation or Protein synthesis and inhibitors.

Enzymes
Introduction, properties, nomenclature and IUBMB classification of enzymes.
Enzyme kinetics (Michaelis-Menten plot, Line-Weaver Burke plot) Enzyme inhibitors with
examples.
Regulation of enzymes: enzyme induction and repression, allosteric enzymes regulation.
Coenzymes: Structure and biochemical functions.
Therapeutic and diagnostic applications of enzymes and isoenzymes.

BP204T. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY (THEORY)

Unit-I

Basic principles of Cell injury and Adaptation:
Introduction, definitions, Homeostasis, Components and Types of Feedback systems,
Causes of cellular injury, Pathogenesis (Cell membrane damage, Mitochondrial damage,
Ribosome damage, Nuclear damage), Morphology of cell injury – Adaptive changes
(Atrophy, Hypertrophy, hyperplasia, Metaplasia, Dysplasia), Cell swelling, Intra cellular
accumulation, Calcification, Enzyme leakage and Cell Death Acidosis & Alkalosis,
Electrolyte imbalance.
Basic mechanism involved in the process of inflammation and repair:
Introduction, Clinical signs of inflammation, Different types of Inflammation,
Mechanism of Inflammation – Alteration in vascular permeability and blood flow,
migration of WBC’s, Mediators of inflammation, Basic principles of wound healing in the
skin, Pathophysiology of Atherosclerosis.

Unit-II

Cardiovascular System:
Hypertension, congestive heart failure, ischemic heart disease (angina, myocardial
infarction, atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis)
Respiratory system: Asthma, Chronic obstructive airways diseases.
Renal system: Acute and chronic renal failure.

Unit-III

Hematological Diseases:
Iron deficiency, megaloblastic anemia (Vitamin B12 and folic acid), sickle cell anemia,
thalassemia, hereditary acquired anemia, hemophilia.
Endocrine system: Diabetes, thyroid diseases, disorders of sex hormones.
Nervous system: Epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease, stroke, psychiatric disorders: depression,
schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s disease.
Gastrointestinal system: Peptic Ulcer.

Unit-IV

Inflammatory bowel diseases, jaundice, hepatitis (A, B, C, D, E, F) alcoholic liver disease.
Disease of bones and joints: Rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis and gout.
Principles of cancer: classification, etiology and pathogenesis of cancer.

Unit-V

Infectious diseases: Meningitis, Typhoid, Leprosy, Tuberculosis, Urinary tract infections.
Sexually transmitted diseases: AIDS, Syphilis, Gonorrhea.

BP205T. COMPUTER APPLICATIONS IN PHARMACY (Theory)

Unit-I

Number system: Binary number system, Decimal number system, Octal number system,
Hexadecimal number systems, conversion decimal to binary, binary to decimal, octal to
binary, binary addition, binary subtraction – One’s complement, Two’s complement
method, binary multiplication, binary division.
Concept of Information Systems and Software: Information gathering, requirement and
feasibility analysis, data flow diagrams, process specifications, input/output design, process
life cycle, planning and managing the project.

Unit-II

Web technologies: Introduction to HTML, XML, CSS and Programming languages,
introduction to web servers and Server Products.
Introduction to databases, MYSQL, MS ACCESS, Pharmacy Drug database.

Unit-III

Application of computers in Pharmacy – Drug information storage and retrieval,
Pharmacokinetics, Mathematical model in Drug design, Hospital and Clinical Pharmacy,
Electronic Prescribing and discharge (EP) systems, barcode medicine identification and
automated dispensing of drugs, mobile technology and adherence monitoring.
Diagnostic system. Lab-diagnostic System, Patient Monitoring System, Pharma
Information System.

Unit-IV

Bioinformatics: Introduction, Objective of Bioinformatics, Bioinformatics Databases,
Concept of Bioinformatics, Impact of Bioinformatics in Vaccine Discovery.

Unit-V

Computers as data analysis in Preclinical development:
Chromatographic dada analysis (CDS), Laboratory Information management System
(LIMS) and Text Information Management System (TIMS).

BP206T. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES (Theory)

Unit-I

The multidisciplinary nature of environmental studies.
Natural Resources.
Renewable and non-renewable resources: Natural resources and associated problems
a) Forest resources; b) Water resources; c) Mineral resources; d) Food resources; e)
Energy resources; f) Land resources: Role of an individual in conservation of natural
resources.

Unit-II

Ecosystems
Concept of an ecosystem.
Structure and function of an ecosystem.
Introduction, types, characteristic features, structure and function of the ecosystems:
Forest ecosystem; Grassland ecosystem; Desert ecosystem; Aquatic ecosystems (ponds,
streams, lakes, rivers, oceans, estuaries).

Unit-III

Environmental Pollution: Air pollution; Water pollution; Soil pollution

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