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BP301T. PHARMACEUTICAL ORGANIC CHEMISTRY –II (Theory)

General methods of preparation and reactions of compounds superscripted with asterisk
(*) to be explained.
To emphasize on definition, types, classification, principles/mechanisms, applications,
examples and differences

Unit-I

Benzene and its derivatives
A. Analytical, synthetic and other evidences in the derivation of structure of benzene, Orbital
picture, resonance in benzene, aromatic characters, Huckel’s rule.
B. Reactions of benzene – nitration, sulphonation, halogenation- reactivity, Friedel Crafts
alkylation-reactivity, limitations, Friedel Crafts acylation.
C. Substituents, effect of substituents on reactivity and orientation of mono substituted
benzene compounds towards electrophilic substitution reaction.
D. Structure and uses of DDT, Saccharin, BHC and Chloramine T.

Unit-II

Phenols* – Acidity of phenols, effect of substituents on acidity, qualitative tests,
Structure and uses of phenol, cresols, resorcinol, naphthols.
Aromatic Amines* – Basicity of amines, effect of substituents on basicity, and synthetic
uses of aryl diazonium salts.
Aromatic Acids*– Acidity, effect of substituents on acidity and important reactions
of benzoic acid.

Unit-III

Fats and Oils
Fatty acids – reactions.
Hydrolysis, Hydrogenation, Saponification and Rancidity of oils, Drying oils.
Analytical constants– Acid value, Saponification value, Ester value, Iodine value, Acetyl
value, Reichert Meissl (RM) value– significance and principle involved in their
determination.

Unit-IV

Polynuclear Hydrocarbons: Synthesis, reactions.
Structure and medicinal uses of Naphthalene, Phenanthrene, Anthracene,
Diphenylmethane, Triphenylmethane and their derivatives.

Unit-V

Cycloalkanes*
Stabilities – Baeyer’s strain theory, limitation of Baeyer’s strain theory, Coulson and
Moffitt’s modification, Sachse Mohr’s theory (Theory of strainless rings), reactions of
cyclopropane and cyclobutane only

BP302T. PHYSICAL PHARMACEUTICS-I (Theory)

Unit-I

Solubility of drugs: Solubility expressions, mechanisms of solute solvent
interactions, ideal solubility parameters, solvation & association, quantitative approach
to the factors influencing solubility of drugs, diffusion principles in biological systems.
Solubility of gas in liquids, solubility of liquids in liquids, (Binary solutions, ideal
solutions) Raoult’s law, real solutions. Partially miscible liquids, Critical solution
temperature and applications. Distribution law, its limitations and applications.

Unit-II

States of Matter and properties of matter: State of matter, changes in the state of
matter, latent heats, vapor pressure, sublimation critical point, eutectic mixtures, gases,
aerosols– inhalers, relative humidity, liquid complexes, liquid crystals, glassy states,
solid- crystalline, amorphous & polymorphism.
Physicochemical properties of drug molecules: Refractive index, optical rotation,
dielectric constant, dipole moment, dissociation constant, determinations and
applications.

Unit-III

Surface and interfacial phenomenon: Liquid interface, surface & interfacial tensions,
surface free energy, measurement of surface & interfacial tensions, spreading coefficient,
adsorption at liquid interfaces, surface active agents, HLB scale, solubilization,
detergency, adsorption at solid interface.

Unit-IV

Complexation and protein binding: Introduction, Classification of Complexation,
Applications, methods of analysis, protein binding, Complexation and drug action,
crystalline structures of complexes and thermodynamic treatment of stability constants.

Unit-V

pH, buffers and Isotonic solutions: Sorensen’s pH scale, pH determination
(electrometric and calorimetric), applications of buffers, buffer equation, buffer capacity,
buffers in pharmaceutical and biological systems, buffered isotonic solutions.

BP303T. PHARMACEUTICAL MICROBIOLOGY (Theory)

Unit-I

Introduction, history of microbiology, its branches, scope and its importance.
Introduction to Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes.
Study of ultra-structure and morphological classification of bacteria, nutritional
requirements, raw materials used for culture media and physical parameters for growth,
growth curve, isolation and preservation methods for pure cultures, cultivation of
anaerobes, quantitative measurement of bacterial growth (total & viable count).
Study of different types of phase contrast microscopy, dark field microscopy and electron
microscopy.

Unit-II

Identification of bacteria using staining techniques (simple, Gram’s &Acid-fast staining)
and biochemical tests (IMViC).
Study of principle, procedure, merits, demerits and applications of physical, chemical
gaseous, radiation and mechanical method of sterilization.
Evaluation of the efficiency of sterilization methods.
Equipments employed in large scale sterilization.
Sterility indicators.

Unit-III

Study of morphology, classification, reproduction/replication and cultivation of Fungi and
Viruses.
Classification and mode of action of disinfectants.
Factors influencing disinfection, antiseptics and their evaluation.
For bacteriostatic and bactericidal actions.
Evaluation of bactericidal & Bacteriostatic.
Sterility testing of products (solids, liquids, ophthalmic and other sterile products)
according to IP, BP and USP.

Unit-IV

Designing of aseptic area, laminar flow equipments; study of different sources of
contamination in an aseptic area and methods of prevention, clean area classification.
Principles and methods of different microbiological assay.
Methods for standardization of antibiotics, vitamins and amino acids.
Assessment of a new antibiotic.

Unit-V

Types of spoilage, factors affecting the microbial spoilage of pharmaceutical products,
sources and types of microbial contaminants, assessment of microbial contamination and
spoilage.
Preservation of pharmaceutical products using antimicrobial agents, evaluation of
microbial stability of formulations.
Growth of animal cells in culture, general procedure for cell culture, Primary, established
and transformed cell cultures.
Application of cell cultures in pharmaceutical industry and research.

BP304T. PHARMACEUTICAL ENGINEERING (Theory)

Unit-I

Flow of Fluids: Types of manometers, Reynolds number and its significance,
Bernoulli’s theorem and its applications, Energy losses, Orifice meter, Venturi meter,
Pitot tube and Rotameter.
Size Reduction: Objectives, Mechanisms & Laws governing size reduction, factors
affecting size reduction, principles, construction, working, uses, merits and demerits of
Hammer mill, ball mill, fluid energy mill, Edge runner mill & end runner mill.
Size Separation: Objectives, applications & mechanism of size separation, official
standards of powders, sieves, size separation Principles, construction, working, uses,
merits and demerits of Sieve shaker, cyclone separator, Air separator, Bag filter &
elutriation tank.

Unit-II

Heat Transfer: Objectives, applications & Heat transfer mechanisms. Fourier’s law,
Heat transfer by conduction, convection & radiation. Heat interchangers & heat
exchangers.
Evaporation: Objectives, applications and factors influencing evaporation,
differences between evaporation and other heat process. principles, construction, working,
uses, merits and demerits of Steam jacketed kettle, horizontal tube evaporator, climbing
film evaporator, forced circulation evaporator, multiple effect evaporator& Economy of
multiple effect evaporator.
Distillation: Basic Principles and methodology of simple distillation, flash distillation,
fractional distillation, distillation under reduced pressure, steam
distillation & molecular distillation.

Unit-III

Drying: Objectives, applications & mechanism of drying process, measurements &
applications of Equilibrium Moisture content, rate of drying curve. principles,
construction, working, uses, merits and demerits of Tray dryer, drum dryer spray dryer,
fluidized bed dryer, vacuum dryer, freeze dryer.
Mixing: Objectives, applications & factors affecting mixing, Difference between solid
and liquid mixing, mechanism of solid mixing, liquids mixing and semisolids mixing.
Principles, Construction, Working, uses, Merits and Demerits of Double cone blender,
twin shell blender, ribbon blender, Sigma blade mixer, planetary mixers, Propellers,
Turbines, Paddles & Silverson Emulsifier.

Unit-IV

Filtration: Objectives, applications, Theories & Factors influencing filtration, filter aids,
filter medias. Principle, Construction, Working, Uses, Merits and demerits of plate &
frame filter, filter leaf, rotary drum filter, Meta filter & Cartridge filter, membrane filters
and Seitz filter.
Centrifugation: Objectives, principle & applications of Centrifugation, principles,
construction, working, uses, merits and demerits of Perforated basket centrifuge, Nonperforated basket centrifuge, semi continuous centrifuge & super centrifuge.

Unit-V

Materials of pharmaceutical plant construction, corrosion and its
prevention: Factors affecting during materials selected for Pharmaceutical plant
construction, Theories of corrosion, types of corrosion and their prevention. Ferrous and
non-ferrous metals, inorganic and organic non-metals, basic of material handling systems.

KVE301. UNIVERSAL HUMAN VALUES AND PROFESSIONAL ETHICS

UNIT-I

Course Introduction – Need, Basic Guidelines, Content and Process for Value Education
Understanding the need, basic guidelines, content and process for Value Education, SelfExploration–what is it? – its content and process; ‘Natural Acceptance’ and Experiential
Validation- as the mechanism for self-exploration, Continuous Happiness and ProsperityA look at basic Human Aspirations, Right understanding, Relationship and Physical
Facilities the basic requirements for fulfilment of aspirations of every human being with
their correct priority, Understanding Happiness and Prosperity correctly- A critical
appraisal of the current scenario, Method to fulfil the above human aspirations:
understanding and living in harmony at various levels.

UNIT-II

Understanding Harmony in the Human Being – Harmony in Myself Understanding human
being as a co-existence of the sentient ‘I’ and the material ‘Body’, Understanding the
needs of Self (‘I’) and ‘Body’ – Sukh and Suvidha, Understanding the Body as an
instrument of ‘I’ (I being the doer, seer and enjoyer), Understanding the characteristics and
activities of ‘I’ and harmony in ‘I’, Understanding the harmony of I with the Body:
Sanyam and Swasthya; correct appraisal of Physical needs, meaning of Prosperity in
detail, Programs to ensure Sanyam and Swasthya.

UNIT-III

Understanding Harmony in the Family and Society- Harmony in Human-Human
Relationship Understanding harmony in the Family- the basic unit of human interaction,
Understanding values in human-human relationship; meaning of Nyaya and program for
its fulfillment to ensure Ubhay-tripti; Trust (Vishwas) and Respect (Samman) as the
foundational values of relationship, Understanding the meaning of Vishwas; Difference
between intention and competence, Understanding the meaning of Samman, Difference
between respect and differentiation; the other salient values in relationship, Understanding
the harmony in the society (society being an extension of family): Samadhan, Samridhi,
Abhay, Sah-astitva as comprehensive Human Goals, Visualizing a universal harmonious
order in society Undivided Society (Akhand Samaj), Universal Order (Sarvabhaum
Vyawastha )- from family to world family.

UNIT-IV

Understanding Harmony in the Nature and Existence – Whole existence as Co-existence
Understanding the harmony in the Nature, Interconnectedness and mutual fulfilment
among the four orders of nature- recyclability and self-regulation in nature, Understanding
Existence as Co-existence (Sah-Astitva) of mutually interacting units in all-pervasive
space, Holistic perception of harmony at all levels of existence.

UNIT-V

Implications of the above Holistic Understanding of Harmony on Professional Ethics
Natural acceptance of human values, Definitiveness of Ethical Human Conduct, Basis for
Humanistic Education, Humanistic Constitution and Humanistic Universal Order,
Competence in Professional Ethics: a) Ability to utilize the professional competence for
augmenting universal human order, b) Ability to identify the scope and characteristics of
people-friendly and eco-friendly production systems, technologies and management
models, Case studies of typical holistic technologies, management models and production
systems, Strategy for transition from the present state to Universal Human Order: a) At the
level of individual: as socially and ecologically responsible engineers, technologists and
managers, b) At the level of society: as mutually enriching institutions and organizations.

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