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BP401T. PHARMACEUTICAL ORGANIC CHEMISTRY –III (Theory)

Unit-I

Stereo isomerism:
Optical isomerism– Optical activity, enantiomerism, diastereomerism, meso compounds.
Elements of symmetry, chiral and achiral molecules.
DL system of nomenclature of optical isomers, sequence rules, RS system of
nomenclature of optical isomers.
Reactions of chiral molecules.
Racemic modification and resolution of racemic mixture.
Asymmetric synthesis: partial and absolute.

Unit-II

Geometrical isomerism- Nomenclature of geometrical isomers (Cis-Trans, E-Z, Syn-Anti
systems). Methods of determination of configuration of geometrical isomers.
Conformational isomerism in Ethane, n-Butane and Cyclohexane.
Stereo isomerism in biphenyl compounds (Atropisomerism) and conditions for optical
activity.
Stereospecific and stereoselective reactions.

Unit-III

Heterocyclic compounds:
Nomenclature and classification
Synthesis, reactions and medicinal uses of following compounds/derivatives:
Pyrrole, Furan, and Thiophene.
Relative aromaticity and reactivity of Pyrrole, Furan and Thiophene.

Unit-IV

Synthesis, reactions and medicinal uses of following compounds/derivatives:
Pyrazole, Imidazole, Oxazole and Thiazole.
Pyridine, Quinoline, Isoquinoline, Acridine and Indole.
Basicity of Pyridine.
Synthesis and medicinal uses of Pyrimidine, Purine, Azepines and their derivatives.

Unit-V

Reactions of synthetic importance
Metal hydrid reduction (NaBH4 and LiAlH4), Clemmensen reduction, Birch reduction,
Wolff Kishner reduction.
Oppenauer oxidation and Dakin reaction.
Beckmanns rearrangement and Schmidt rearrangement.
Claisen-Schmidt condensation.

BP402T. MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY – I (Theory)

Unit-I

Introduction to Medicinal Chemistry
History and development of medicinal chemistry
Physicochemical properties in relation to biological action
Ionization, Solubility, Partition Coefficient, Hydrogen bonding, Protein binding, Chelation,
Bioisosterism, Optical and Geometrical isomerism.
Drug metabolism
Drug metabolism principles- Phase I and Phase II.
Factors affecting drug metabolism including stereo chemical aspects.

Unit-II

Drugs acting on Autonomic Nervous System
Adrenergic Neurotransmitters:
Biosynthesis and catabolism of catecholamine.
Adrenergic receptors (Alpha & Beta) and their distribution.
Sympathomimetic agents: SAR of sympathomimetic agents
Direct acting: Nor-epinephrine, Epinephrine, Phenylephrine*, Dopamine, Methyldopa,
Clonidine, Dobutamine, Isoproterenol, Terbutaline, Salbutamol*, Bitolterol, Naphazoline,
Oxymetazoline and Xylometazoline.
Indirect acting agents: Hydroxyamphetamine, Pseudoephedrine, Propylhexedrine.
Agents with mixed mechanism: Ephedrine, Metaraminol.
Adrenergic Antagonists:
Alpha adrenergic blockers: Tolazoline*, Phentolamine, Phenoxybenzamine, Prazosin,
Dihydroergotamine, Methysergide.
Beta adrenergic blockers: SAR of beta blockers, Propranolol*, Metipranolol,
Atenolol, Betazolol, Bisoprolol, Esmolol, Metoprolol, Labetolol, Carvedilol.

Unit-III

Cholinergic neurotransmitters:
Biosynthesis and catabolism of acetylcholine.
Cholinergic receptors (Muscarinic & Nicotinic) and their distribution.
Parasympathomimetic agents: SAR of Parasympathomimetic agents
Direct acting agents: Acetylcholine, Carbachol*, Bethanechol, Methacholine,
Pilocarpine.
Indirect acting/ Cholinesterase inhibitors (Reversible & Irreversible): Physostigmine,
Neostigmine*, Pyridostigmine, Edrophonium chloride, Tacrine hydrochloride,
Ambenonium chloride, Isofluorphate, Echothiophate iodide, Parathion, Malathion.
Cholinesterase reactivator: Pralidoxime chloride.
Cholinergic Blocking agents: SAR of cholinolytic agents
Solanaceous alkaloids and analogues: Atropine sulphate, Hyoscyamine sulphate,
Scopolamine hydrobromide, Homatropine hydrobromide, Ipratropium bromide*.
Synthetic cholinergic blocking agents: Tropicamide, Cyclopentolate hydrochloride,
Clidinium bromide, Dicyclomine hydrochloride*, Glycopyrrolate, Methantheline bromide,
Propantheline bromide, Benztropine mesylate, Orphenadrine citrate, Biperidine
hydrochloride, Procyclidine hydrochloride*, Tridihexethyl chloride, Isopropamide
iodide, Ethopropazine hydrochloride.

Unit-IV

Drugs acting on Central Nervous System
A. Sedatives and Hypnotics:
Benzodiazepines: SAR of Benzodiazepines, Chlordiazepoxide, Diazepam*, Oxazepam,
Chlorazepate, Lorazepam, Alprazolam, Zolpidem
Barbiturates: SAR of barbiturates, Barbital*, Phenobarbital, Mephobarbital,
Amobarbital, Butabarbital, Pentobarbital, Secobarbital.
Miscellaneous: Amides & imides: Glutethimide.
Alcohol & their carbamate derivatives: Meprobamate, Ethchlorvynol.
Aldehyde & their derivatives: Triclofos sodium, Paraldehyde.
B. Antipsychotics
Phenothiazines: SAR of Phenothiazines- Promazine hydrochloride, Chlorpromazine
hydrochloride*, Triflupromazine, Thioridazine hydrochloride, Piperacetazine
hydrochloride, Prochlorperazine maleate, Trifluoperazine hydrochloride.
Ring Analogues of Phenothiazines: Chlorprothixene, Thiothixene, Loxapine succinate,
Clozapine.
Fluoro buterophenones: Haloperidol, Droperidol, Risperidone.
Beta amino ketones: Molindone hydrochloride.
Benzamides: Sulpiride.
C. Anticonvulsants: SAR of Anticonvulsants, mechanism of anticonvulsant action.
Barbiturates: Phenobarbitone, Metharbital.
Hydantoins: Phenytoin*, Mephenytoin, Ethotoin.
Oxazolidine diones: Trimethadione, Paramethadione.
Succinimides: Phensuximide, Methsuximide, Ethosuximide.*
Urea and monoacylureas: Phenacemide, Carbamazepine.*
Benzodiazepines: Clonazepam.
Miscellaneous: Primidone, Valproic acid, Gabapentin, Felbamate.

Unit-V

Drugs acting on Central Nervous System
General anesthetics:
Inhalation anesthetics: Halothane*, Methoxyflurane, Enflurane, Sevoflurane, Isoflurane,
Desflurane.
Ultra-short acting barbitutrates: Methohexital sodium*, Thiamylal sodium,
Thiopental sodium.
Dissociative anesthetics: Ketamine hydrochloride. *
Narcotic and non-narcotic analgesics
Morphine and related drugs: SAR of Morphine analogues, Morphine sulphate, Codeine,
Meperidine hydrochloride, Anileridine hydrochloride, Diphenoxylate hydrochloride,
Loperamide hydrochloride, Fentanyl citrate*, Methadone hydrochloride*, Propoxyphene
hydrochloride, Pentazocine, Levorphanol tartrate.
Narcotic antagonists: Nalorphine hydrochloride, Levallorphan tartrate, Naloxone
hydrochloride.
Anti-inflammatory agents: Sodium salicylate, Aspirin, Mefenamic acid*,
Meclofenamate, Indomethacin, Sulindac, Tolmetin, Zomepirac, Diclofenac, Ketorolac,
Ibuprofen*, Naproxen, Piroxicam, Phenacetin, Acetaminophen, Antipyrine,
Phenylbutazone.

BP403T. PHYSICAL PHARMACEUTICS-II (Theory)

Unit-I

Colloidal dispersions: Classification of dispersed systems & their general characteristics,
size & shapes of colloidal particles, classification of colloids & comparative account of
their general properties. Optical, kinetic & electrical properties. Effect of electrolytes,
coacervation, peptization & protective action.

Unit-II

Rheology: Newtonian systems, law of flow, kinematic viscosity, effect of temperature,
non-Newtonian systems, pseudoplastic, dilatant, plastic, thixotropy, thixotropy in
formulation, determination of viscosity, capillary, falling Sphere, rotational viscometers.
Deformation of solids: Plastic and elastic deformation, Heckel equation, Stress, Strain,
Elastic Modulus.

Unit-III

Coarse dispersion: Suspension, interfacial properties of suspended particles, settling in
suspensions, formulation of flocculated and deflocculated suspensions. Emulsions and
theories of emulsification, microemulsion and multiple emulsions. Stability of emulsions,
preservation of emulsions, rheological properties of emulsions and emulsion formulation
by HLB method.

Unit-IV

Micromeritics: Particle size and distribution, mean particle size, number and weight
distribution, particle number, methods for determining particle size by different methods,
counting and separation method, particle shape, specific surface, methods for determining
surface area, permeability, adsorption, derived properties of powders, porosity, packing
arrangement, densities, bulkiness & flow properties.

Unit-V

Drug stability: Reaction kinetics: zero, pseudo-zero, first & second order, units of basic
rate constants, determination of reaction order.
Physical and chemical factors influencing the chemical degradation of pharmaceutical
product: temperature, solvent, ionic strength, dielectric constant, specific & general acid
base catalysis, Simple numerical problems. Stabilization of medicinal agents against
common reactions like hydrolysis & oxidation. Accelerated stability testing in expiration
dating of pharmaceutical dosage forms. Photolytic degradation and its prevention.

BP404T. PHARMACOLOGY-I (Theory)

Unit-I

General Pharmacology
Introduction to Pharmacology- Definition, historical landmarks and scope of
pharmacology, nature and source of drugs, essential drugs concept and routes of drug
administration, Agonists, antagonists (competitive and noncompetitive), spare receptors,
addiction, tolerance, dependence, tachyphylaxis, idiosyncrasy, allergy.
Pharmacokinetics- Membrane transport, absorption, distribution, metabolism and
excretion of drugs. Enzyme induction, enzyme inhibition, kinetics of elimination.

Unit-II

General Pharmacology
Pharmacodynamics- Principles and mechanisms of drug action. Receptor theories and
classification of receptors, regulation of receptors. drug receptors interactions signal
transduction mechanisms, G-protein–coupled receptors, ion channel receptor,
transmembrane enzyme linked receptors, transmembrane JAK-STAT binding receptor
and receptors that regulate transcription factors, dose response relationship, therapeutic
index, combined effects of drugs and factors modifying drug action.
Adverse drug reactions.
Drug interactions (pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic).
Drug discovery and clinical evaluation of new drugs -Drug discovery phase, preclinical
evaluation phase, clinical trial phase, phases of clinical trials and pharmacovigilance.

Unit-III

Pharmacology of drugs acting on peripheral nervous system
Organization and function of ANS.
Neurohumoral transmission, co-transmission and classification of neurotransmitters.
Parasympathomimetic, Parasympatholytic, Sympathomimetics, sympatholytic.
Neuromuscular blocking agents and skeletal muscle relaxants (peripheral).
Local anesthetic agents.
Drugs used in myasthenia gravis and glaucoma.

Unit-IV

Pharmacology of drugs acting on central nervous system
Neurohumoral transmission in the CNS special emphasis on importance of various
neurotransmitters like with GABA, Glutamate, Glycine, serotonin, dopamine.
General anesthetics and pre-anesthetics.
Sedatives, hypnotics and centrally acting muscle relaxants.
Anti-epileptics.
Alcohols and disulfiram.

Unit-V

Pharmacology of drugs acting on central nervous system
Psychopharmacological agents: antipsychotics, antidepressants, anti-anxiety agents,
antimanics and hallucinogens.
Drugs used in Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease.
CNS stimulants and nootropics.
Opioid analgesics and antagonists.
Drug addiction, drug abuse, tolerance and dependence.

BP405T. PHARMACOGNOSY AND PHYTOCHEMISTRY I (Theory)

Unit-I

Introduction to Pharmacognosy:
Definition, history, scope and development of Pharmacognosy.
Sources of Drugs – Plants, Animals, Marine & Tissue culture.
Organized drugs, unorganized drugs (dried latex, dried juices, dried extracts, gums and
mucilage, oleoresins and oleo- gum -resins).
Classification of drugs:
Alphabetical, morphological, taxonomical, chemical, pharmacological, chemo and sero
taxonomical classification of drugs.
Quality control of Drugs of Natural Origin:
Adulteration of drugs of natural origin. Evaluation by organoleptic, microscopic,
physical, chemical and biological methods and properties.
Quantitative microscopy of crude drugs including lycopodium spore method, leaf
constant, camera lucida and diagrams of microscopic objects to scale with camera lucida.

Unit-II

Cultivation, Collection, Processing and storage of drugs of natural origin: Cultivation
and Collection of drugs of natural origin. Factors influencing cultivation of medicinal
plants. Plant hormones and their applications.
Polyploidy, mutation and hybridization with reference to medicinal plants.
Conservation of medicinal plants.

Unit-III

Plant tissue culture:
Historical development of plant tissue culture, types of cultures, Nutritional
requirements, growth and their maintenance.
Applications of plant tissue culture in pharmacognosy.
Edible vaccines.

Unit-IV

Pharmacognosy in various systems of medicine:
Role of Pharmacognosy in allopathy and traditional systems of medicine namely, Ayurveda,
Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy and Chinese systems of medicine.
Introduction to secondary metabolites:
Definition, classification, properties and test for identification of Alkaloids, Glycosides,
Flavonoids, Tannins, Volatile oil and Resins.

Unit-V

Study of biological source, chemical nature and uses of drugs of natural origin containing
following drugs.
Plant Products:
Fibers – Cotton, Jute, Hemp.
Hallucinogens, Teratogens, Natural allergens.
Primary metabolites:
General introduction, detailed study with respect to chemistry, sources, preparation,
evaluation, preservation, storage, therapeutic used and commercial utility as Pharmaceutical
Aids and/or Medicines for the following primary metabolites:
Carbohydrates: Acacia, Agar, Tragacanth, Honey.
Proteins and Enzymes: Gelatin, casein, proteolytic enzymes (Papain, bromelain,
serratiopeptidase, urokinase, streptokinase, pepsin).
Lipids (Waxes, fats, fixed oils): Castor oil, Chaulmoogra oil, Wool Fat, Bees Wax.
Marine Drugs: Novel medicinal agents from marine sources.

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