Download Thermodynamics Quantum pdf For Aktu B-tech 2nd Year:

Thermodynamics is an essential subject in the field of engineering, especially for students pursuing their B-Tech degrees. It provides a fundamental understanding of energy transformation and the behavior of matter. If you’re an AKTU B-Tech 2nd-year student looking to enhance your knowledge of thermodynamics, this article is here to help. We will delve into the key topics of thermodynamics and provide information on how to download Thermodynamics Quantum pdf specifically tailored for AKTU students.

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Table of Contents

  1. Introduction to Thermodynamics Quantum pdf
  2. Laws of Thermodynamics
    1. Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
    2. First Law of Thermodynamics
    3. Second Law of Thermodynamics
    4. Third Law of Thermodynamics
  3. Thermodynamic Systems and Processes
    1. Closed Systems
    2. Open Systems
    3. Isolated Systems
    4. Reversible Processes
    5. Irreversible Processes
  4. Thermodynamic Properties
    1. Temperature
    2. Pressure
    3. Volume
    4. Internal Energy
    5. Enthalpy
    6. Entropy
  5. Laws of Perfect Gases
  6. Thermodynamic Equilibrium
  7. Thermodynamic Cycles
    1. Carnot Cycle
    2. Rankine Cycle
    3. Otto Cycle
    4. Diesel Cycle
  8. Conclusion

Introduction to Thermodynamics Quantum pdf

Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with the relationships between heat, work, and energy. It focuses on the study of systems and how they exchange energy with their surroundings. Understanding thermodynamics is crucial for engineers as it forms the foundation for various engineering disciplines such as mechanical, chemical, and aerospace engineering.

Laws of Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics is governed by a set of fundamental principles known as the laws of thermodynamics. These laws define the behavior of energy and provide insights into the efficiency and limitations of energy conversion processes.

Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics

The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics states that if two systems are in thermal equilibrium with a third system, they are also in equilibrium with each other. It forms the basis for temperature measurement and the concept of thermal equilibrium.

First Law of Thermodynamics

The First Law of Thermodynamics, also known as the Law of Energy Conservation, states that energy cannot be created or destroyed in an isolated system. It can only be converted from one form to another or transferred between the system and its surroundings.

Second Law of Thermodynamics

The Second Law of Thermodynamics focuses on the concept of entropy, which measures the degree of disorder or randomness in a system. It states that the entropy of an isolated system tends to increase over time, and natural processes are irreversible.

Third Law of Thermodynamics

The Third Law of Thermodynamics states that as the temperature of a system approaches absolute zero, the entropy of the system approaches a minimum value. It provides insights into the behavior of matter at extremely low temperatures.

Thermodynamic Systems and Processes

Thermodynamics deals with the analysis of thermodynamic systems and processes. Understanding different types of systems and processes is crucial to comprehend the behavior of energy within them.

Closed Systems

A closed system is a thermodynamic system that does not exchange matter with its surroundings. However, energy can flow across its boundaries in the form of heat or work.

Open Systems

An open system is a thermodynamic system that can exchange both energy and matter with its surroundings. It allows the transfer of heat, work, and mass across its boundaries.

Isolated Systems

An isolated system is a thermodynamic system that does not exchange energy or matter with its surroundings. It remains completely isolated from its environment.

Reversible Processes

A reversible process is a thermodynamic process that can be reversed without leaving any trace on the system or its surroundings. It is an idealized concept used to analyze the maximum theoretical efficiency of energy conversion processes.

Irreversible Processes

An irreversible process is a thermodynamic process that is not reversible. It involves losses due to friction, heat transfer across a finite temperature difference, or irreversibilities within the system.

Thermodynamic Properties

Thermodynamic properties are the characteristics that define the state of a system. They play a crucial role in the analysis of thermodynamic processes and systems.


Temperature is a fundamental thermodynamic property that determines the direction of heat transfer. It quantifies the average kinetic energy of the particles within a system.


Pressure is the force exerted per unit area. It is an essential property in thermodynamics as it influences the behavior of gases, liquids, and solids.


Volume is the amount of space occupied by a system. It is a critical property for analyzing changes in the state of matter and calculating work done.

Internal Energy

Internal energy is the sum of the microscopic kinetic and potential energies of the particles within a system. It represents the total energy of the system.


Enthalpy is a thermodynamic property that accounts for the heat flow in a system at constant pressure. It combines the internal energy and the product of pressure and volume.


Entropy is a measure of the disorder or randomness of a system. It quantifies the number of possible microstates that a system can have.

Laws of Perfect Gases

Perfect gases are idealized systems that follow specific laws. Understanding these laws helps in analyzing and predicting the behavior of gases under different conditions.

Thermodynamic Equilibrium

Thermodynamic equilibrium refers to a state where the macroscopic properties of a system remain constant over time. It is a state of balance between the system and its surroundings.

Thermodynamic Cycles

Thermodynamic cycles are processes that involve a series of state changes in a system, ultimately returning the system to its initial state. These cycles are essential in various energy conversion systems and engines.

Carnot Cycle

The Carnot Cycle is a theoretical thermodynamic cycle that represents the most efficient heat engine possible. It consists of four reversible processes and is used as a benchmark for other cycles.

Rankine Cycle

The Rankine Cycle is a thermodynamic cycle commonly used in steam power plants. It involves the conversion of heat into work through the expansion and contraction of steam.

Otto Cycle

The Otto Cycle is a thermodynamic cycle that represents the operation of spark-ignition internal combustion engines, commonly used in automobiles. It involves the combustion of a fuel-air mixture to produce work.

Diesel Cycle

The Diesel Cycle is a thermodynamic cycle that represents the operation of diesel engines. It involves the compression of air followed by the injection of fuel, leading to combustion and work production.


Thermodynamics is a vital subject for AKTU B-Tech 2nd-year students, and a solid understanding of its key topics is crucial for success in the field of engineering. We explored the laws of thermodynamics, thermodynamic systems and processes, thermodynamic properties, and various thermodynamic cycles. Additionally, we discussed the application of thermodynamics in engineering and provided a resource to download a tailored Thermodynamics Quantum PDF for AKTU B-Tech 2nd Year. By diving into the intricacies of thermodynamics, you will develop a strong foundation for your engineering career.


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